Very first, new mountain of your own relationships BP which have Na consumption ranged of the time intake, indicating one Na density can get echo the connection having BP better than simply pure Na consumption do
There was a significant 3-way interaction between Na intake, energy, and obesity status for SBP (P=0.033); for DBP, the 3-way interaction was not significant, but there was a significant interaction between energy intake and obesity (P=0.005). In stratified models, the association of Na with SBP was stronger at lower energy intake (higher Na density) than at higher energy intake (lower Na density) in both nonobese (interaction of Na with energy; P<0.001) and obese (interaction of Na with energy; P=0.028); the association of Na and DBP by energy intakes was similar (interaction of Na with energy, P=0.005 nonobese; P=0.049 obese). On the control diet at 2300 mg Na intake in the nonobese, SBP was 4.7 mm Hg (95% CI, 1.0, 8.5) higher at 2100 kcal compared with 3200 kcal (Figure 3A), and DBP was 3.1 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.7, 5.5) higher (Figure 3C). In obese at 2300 mg Na intake on the control diet, there were no differences in SBP (0.6 mm Hg; 95% CI, ?3.8 to 4.9; Figure 3B) or DBP (1.8 mm Hg; 95% CI, ?1.0 to 4.5; Figure 3D) between 2100 and 3200 kcal. On the DASH diet at 2300 mg Na, there were no significant differences in SBP at 2100 versus 3200 kcal regardless of obesity status (2.5 mm Hg; 95% CI, ?1.0 to 6.0 for nonobese and ?1.3 mm Hg; 95% CI, ?6.0 to 3.4 for obese). On the DASH diet at 2300 mg Na, DBP was higher at 2100 versus 3200 kcal in the nonobese (2.1 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.1–4.4), but not in the obese (?0.3 mm Hg (95% CI, ?3.2 to 2.6).
Figure 3. Interaction of absolute Na intake and energy intake on blood pressure at 3 energy levels stratified by obesity status, indicating 3 levels of Na density (L, I, and H), among normal and overweight (body mass index [BMI] <30 kg/m 2 , A and C) and obese (BMI?30 kg/m 2 , B and D) participants on the control diet. The vertical line is drawn at 2300 mg absolute Na intake. Error bars represent ±1 SE. Results from mixed-effects models of continuous Na and energy, adjusted for age, sex, race, smoking, cohort, diet type (DASH [Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension] or control), clinical center, and carryover effects stratified by obesity status. DBP indicates diastolic blood pressure; and SBP, systolic blood pressure.
This data are conducted to decide if the relationships anywhere between Na and you may BP may vary that have opportunity consumption. Multiple key findings emerged. 2nd, because before stated, the end result off Na protection are attenuated in the setting regarding the Dash diet compared to the new manage eating plan, indicating one to aspects of eating plan together with determine brand new BP reaction to alterations in Na intake. 5,twelve,13 In addition to attenuating new BP a reaction to Na, the latest Dash diet together with decreased BP, in line with proof you to areas of diet, including a greater intake out-of potassium, separately lower BP. 14 3rd, the fresh connection off Na that have energy consumption into BP persisted when this new analyses was in fact stratified of the race, with the exception of DBP one of whites. Last, having stratification from the carrying excess fat condition, larger differences in BP because of the energy consumption was basically observed one particular who have been nonobese in contrast to over weight.
Whilst the Dashboard–Na analysis regulated Na density, and never absolute Na intake, the original outcome of which demonstration was in fact interpreted in terms of Na consumption unlike Na occurrence. The possible lack of revealing performance by Na occurrence get reflect the newest absence of investigation for the time consumption a number of degree. Evaluation of your relationships off Na density having death during the observational research has offered blended performance. The analysis of Na density with death from the NHANES II follow-up investigation (Federal Health and Nutrients Test Questionnaire) and you can out-of NHANES III suggested a keen inverse relationship out of Na and cardiovascular illnesses death, regardless if given Na with regards to opportunity intake. fifteen,sixteen Within these degree, although not, Na and effort intake were estimated using one 24-hr recall, which is not sufficient to guess an individual’s usual dieting consumption on account of highest day-to-day adaptation both in Na consumption and effort intake and their ratio. Next, opportunity consumption is implausibly lower in both degree. It will be easy that the seen matchmaking anywhere between Na intake and you may heart problems mortality are told me from the not as much as-revealing prejudice, which is, in the event the fat individuals statement down Na occurrence and are generally likely to be so you can pass away out-of cardiovascular disease, brand new observed matchmaking will get echo the brand new perception from being obese instead of diet plan. The most up-to-date facts out-of a possible cohort research (n=716, 19-year go after-up) aligns towards result of the modern analysis, with claimed chance off cardio events two times as higher one particular on higher instead of reduced quartile from Na occurrence (22% in the place of 11%, respectively; P=0.005) considering eight-big date food records gathered within standard. 17